Shrinking the Malaria Map

UCSF Global Health Group’s Malaria Elimination Initiative (MEI)

Nicaragua

Nicaragua reported 2,278 cases of local malaria transmission in 2015 and is making great progress towards achieving national elimination by the 2020 regional goal.

Malaria in Nicaragua has been on a considerable decline since 2000, dropping from 23,878 cases to 2,278 cases in 2015. The country’s malaria transmission is primarily due to Plasmodium vivax. Transmission is increasingly focal, and in recent years more than 95% of national cases have been concentrated along the Atlantic coast in the North Autonomous Atlantic Region (RAAN). Most cases are reported during the rainy season lasting from May to October, peaking during the wettest months at the end of the season. Vector control is a challenge in Nicaragua due to the variety of breeding conditions tolerated by An. albimanus, high densities of adult vectors during the rainy season, and historically rapid development of resistance to the most commonly used insecticides.

Nicaragua has received Global Fund support for its malaria program since 2003. In 2013, a consolidated grant launched with a goal of moving the country towards pre-elimination, prioritizing the highest risk communities that live in chronic poverty, lack adequate access to health care due to cultural and geographical barriers, and are highly mobile. Nicaragua is a member of the Amazon Malaria Initiative (AMI), a regional program fostering collaboration in malaria prevention and control supported by the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), as well as a participating country of a new regional grant from the Global Fund entitled Elimination of Malaria in Mesoamerica and the Island of Hispaniola (EMMIE). With the support of both initiatives, Nicaragua has begun reorienting its malaria strategy towards one of elimination, aiming to achieve a shared regional goal of elimination by 2020.

2,278 # of cases (2015)
2020
Elimination goal
Lower middle
Income level
Reported cases
Reported cases
P falciparum transmission limit (2010)
P falciparum transmission limit (2010)
P vivax transmission limit (2010)
P vivax transmission limit (2010)

Challenges to elimination