Shrinking the Malaria Map

UCSF Global Health Group’s Malaria Elimination Initiative (MEI)

Tajikistan

Tajikistan achieved malaria elimination in 2015, enabling the WHO European Region to declare zero local malaria cases for the first time in history.

Tajikistan has succeeded in achieving malaria elimination, with reported malaria cases dropping from 19,064 in 2000 to zero local cases in 2015. Local transmission in the WHO European Region in 2014 was confined to Tajikistan, in which there were two local cases of P. vivax malaria, but one was just a relapse.

Seasonal transmission of P. vivax malaria typically occurred between May and October, although duration of transmission varied geographically, with shorter seasons in mountainous areas and longer seasons of up to 6-8 months in the lowlands. In the spring, heavy rainfall and mild temperatures created ideal vector breeding grounds, and during the summer these breeding areas were sustained by an increase in rice cultivation and agricultural land use changes. 

Tajikistan nearly eliminated malaria in the mid-1970s, reducing local cases to only seven in 1974. Due mostly to the collapse of the Soviet Union and an ensuing civil war, malaria cases surged in the mid-1990s to an estimated 120,000 cases. Following this large outbreak, several interventions including indoor residual spraying (IRS) and mass drug administration (MDA) with primaquine were introduced to bring the malaria situation under control and ultimately helped the country achieve elimination. 

0 # of cases (2015)
2015
Elimination goal
Lower middle
Income level
Reported cases
Reported cases
P falciparum transmission limit (2010)
P falciparum transmission limit (2010)
P vivax transmission limit (2010)
P vivax transmission limit (2010)

Challenges to elimination