Shrinking the Malaria Map

UCSF Global Health Group’s Malaria Elimination Initiative (MEI)

Vanuatu

Vanuatu, which has eliminated malaria from two islands, is working to eliminate malaria nationally by 2025.

Vanuatu experienced a 98 percent decline in malaria cases between 2004 and 2014 and has reported zero malaria deaths for three consecutive years. Transmission is attributed to two Plasmodium parasite species: P. vivax (88%) and P. falciparum (12%); P.vivax infections occur year-round, while P. falciparum transmission is seasonal. The only known malaria vector is Anopheles farauti, with peak biting occurring outdoors in the early evening (adult females) and indoors and outdoors throughout the night. Malaria is endemic on all inhabited islands in Vanuatu, with the exception of Aneityum (where it was eliminated in the late 1990s) and Futuna (which lies south-east of the Buxton line, the natural limit for Anopheles mosquito vectors); therefore, nearly the entire population is considered at-risk for infection.

Other than those living on Futuna, the entire population of Vanuatu is at risk for malaria. Widespread use of insecticide- treated bed nets has contributed to an overall reduction of malaria starting in 1990, when annual malaria incidence was nearly 200 per 1,000 population. Vanuatu recently revised its malaria strategy to strengthen surveillance and response, increase vector control coverage, and improve access and quality of diagnostics and treatment in all provinces. Vanuatu is a country partner in the Asia Pacific Malaria Elimination Network (APMEN).

982 # of cases (2014)
2025
Elimination goal
Lower middle
Income level
Reported cases
Reported cases
P falciparum transmission limit (2010)
P falciparum transmission limit (2010)
P vivax transmission limit (2010)
P vivax transmission limit (2010)

Challenges to elimination