Reactive Case Detection (RACD) Monitoring and Evaluation Tool

What is reactive case detection?

Reactive case detection (RACD) is a form of active case detection, a World Health Organization-recommended strategy for identifying and treating additional malaria infections (from an index case) in areas of low malaria transmission. RACD involves investigation of passively-detected cases of malaria, e.g., patients seeking care at their local clinic, to determine the suspected origin of infection and the potential risk for onward transmission of malaria. If areas are receptive, additional testing of contacts is carried out. By identifying and treating infected individuals earlier, RACD can reduce the severity and duration of illness and prevent the spread of infection.

What is the RACD Monitoring and Evaluation Tool and why is it useful?

While RACD is commonly used in malaria-eliminating countries, it is a time and resource intensive approach, with many logistical challenges, and a range of methods used across settings. In response to the lack of standard metrics or tools for monitoring and evaluation of RACD activities, the Malaria Elimination Initiative developed the RACD Monitoring & Evaluation (M&E) Tool, a series of four modules, to help national malaria programs build evidence for the improvement of RACD operational components, such as completeness of each investigation, timeliness, screening coverage, and additional positive malaria cases identified. This information can help guide decision-making toward strengthening active surveillance strategies.

Who should use this tool and how?

The RACD M&E Tool should be led by national- or provincial-level malaria program managers or surveillance officers. This high-level manager leads the implementation of all modules, with data collection and entry supported by key provincial and district surveillance teams and health facility staff. Each module contains an accompanying instruction manual and Microsoft Excel and/or Word template to be used in conjunction.

The MEI requests that national malaria programs contact us when using any of the tools in the Malaria Elimination Toolkit. Support in implementing the tool may be available. If you are using the RACD M&E Tool, please contact Laura Newman ( at the Malaria Elimination Initiative, Global Health Group, University of California, San Francisco.

Piloting a programme tool to evaluate malaria case investigation and reactive case detection activities: results from 3 settings in the Asia Pacific
Adapting the local response for malaria elimination through evaluation of the 1-3-7 system performance in the China–Myanmar border region